安抚奶嘴能不能用? 来自美国权威医学网站的建议

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  美国梅奥诊所Mayo Clinic对安抚奶嘴的建议
  注:美国梅奥诊所是世界著名私立非营利性医疗机构,是世界最具影响力和代表世界最高医疗水平的医疗机构之一。
  Pacifiers: Are they good for your baby?   The decision to use a pacifier - or not - is up to you. Consider the do's anddon'ts of giving your baby a pacifier, and how to help him or her break the habit.
  是否给你的孩子使用安抚奶嘴,决定权在你。本文将对于如何使用安抚奶嘴、以及如何帮助孩子戒断奶嘴,给你一些建议。
  Most babies have a strong sucking reflex. Somebabies even suck their thumbs or fingers before they're born. Beyond nutrition,sucking often has a soothing, calming effect. That's why many parents rankpacifiers as must haves, right up there with diaper wipes and baby swings. Arepacifiers really OK for your baby, though? Understand the benefits and risks ofpacifier use, important safety tips and steps to help wean your baby from thepacifier.
  大部分宝宝有强烈的吸吮反射。一些宝宝在出生前就开始吮吸他们的手指。除了吸收营养,吸吮还具有舒缓、镇静情绪的作用。
  因此许多父母把奶嘴当做宝宝的必需品,直到其他安抚物开始发挥作用。那么你的宝宝是否真的可以使用安抚奶嘴?我们先得了解使用安抚奶嘴的正面作用和安全风险,并要知道帮助宝宝戒断奶嘴的步骤。
  The pros 正面作用
  For some babies, pacifiers are the key tocontentment between feedings. Consider the advantages:
  对于一些宝宝,奶嘴是喂奶间隔中的重要安抚方式,优点如下:
  · Apacifier might soothe a fussy baby. Some babies are happiest when they'resucking on something.   奶嘴可以使烦躁的宝宝平静下来。
  · Apacifier offer s temporary distraction. A pacifier might come in handyduring shots, blood tests or other procedures.   安抚奶嘴可以暂时分散宝宝的注意力,比如在注射、抽血或其他程序中。
  · Apacifier might help your baby fall asleep. If your baby has troublesettling down, a pacifier might do the trick.   安抚奶嘴可以帮助你的宝宝入睡。
  · Apacifier might ease discomfort during flights. Babies can't intentionally
  The cons负面作用
  Of course, pacifier shave pitfalls as well.Consider the drawbacks:   当然,使用安抚奶嘴也有弊端,有如下缺点:
  · Early pacifier use might interfere with breast-feeding. Sucking on a breast is differentfrom sucking on a pacifier or bottle, and some babies are sensitive to those differences. Research suggests that early use of artificial nipples is associatedwith decreased exclusive breast-feeding and duration of breast-feeding—although it's not clear if artificial nipples cause breast-feeding problems orserve as a solution to an existing problem.   过早使用安抚奶嘴可能影响母乳喂养。吸吮乳头和吸吮奶嘴的方式不同,部分婴儿对这种不同非常敏感。研究表明刚出生头几周的使用可能导致“乳头错觉(乳头混淆)”。
  · Your baby might become dependent on the pacifier. If your baby uses a pacifierto sleep, you might face frequent middle-of-the-night crying spells when thepacifier falls out of your baby's mouth.   宝宝可能对安抚奶嘴产生依赖。如果婴儿含着安抚奶嘴入睡,当奶嘴从嘴里掉出来的时候,她可能会醒来并哭闹。
  · Pacifier use might increase the risk of middle ear infections. However, rates ofmiddle ear infections are generally lowest from birth to age 6 months — whenthe risk of SIDS is the highest and your baby might be most interested in apacifier.   安抚奶嘴可能提高患中耳炎的几率,但是0-6个月宝宝患中耳炎的几率是最低的,而这个阶段发生婴儿猝死综合征的几率最高。
  · Prolonged pacifier use might lead to dental problems. Normal pacifier use during thefirst few years of life doesn't cause long-term dental problems. However,prolonged pacifier use might cause a child's top front teeth to slant outwardor not come in properly.   过长时间使用安抚奶嘴可能导致牙齿咬合问题。但头几年正常的使用不会导致长期的牙齿问题。
  Pacifier do's and don'ts   If you choose to offer your baby a pacifier, keepthese tips in mind:   如果你选择给你的孩子使用安抚奶嘴,请谨记如下要点:
  · Wait until breast-feeding is well established. Be patient. It might take a fewweeks or more to settle into a regular nursing routine. If you'rebreast-feeding, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends waiting tointroduce a pacifier until four to six weeks after birth.   建立稳定的母乳喂养后再使用安抚奶嘴。美国儿科学会建议母乳喂养的宝宝在出生4-6周后再使用安抚奶嘴。
  · Don't use a pacifier as a first line of defense. Sometimes a change of positionor a rocking session can calm a crying baby. Offer a pacifier to your baby onlyafter or between feedings. Don't allow your child to use the pacifier all day.   不要把安抚奶嘴作为首选的安抚方式。有时候体位的改变或是摇摆就能够安抚一个哭泣的宝宝。只在哺乳后或是哺乳的间隔使用安抚奶嘴。不要让你的宝宝整天衔着奶嘴。
  · Choose the silicone one-piece, dish washer-safe variety. Pacifiers made of two pieces pose a choking hazard if they break. Once you've settled on a favorite pacifier, keep a few identical backups on hand.   选择一体成型、可以清洗的产品。两片构成的奶嘴一旦破了就有窒息风险。当你选定了最喜欢的奶嘴,建议多准备几个。
  · Let your baby set the pace. If your baby's not interested in the pacifier, tryagain later — or skip it entirely. If the pacifier falls out of your baby'smouth while he or she is sleeping, don't pop it back in.   尊重宝宝的选择。如果你的宝宝对奶嘴不感兴趣,过会儿再尝试或者放弃使用。如果宝宝入睡后奶嘴从嘴里掉出来,不要再放回去。
  · Keep itclean. Before you offer your baby a pacifier, clean it thoroughly. Untilyour baby is 6months old and his or her immune system matures, frequently boilpacifiers or run them through the dishwasher. After age 6 months, simply washpacifiers with soap and water. Resist the temptation to "rinse" thepacifier in your own mouth. You'll only spread more germs to your baby.   婴儿6个月前,要经常用沸水消毒奶嘴,避免他受细菌感染,这时他的免疫功能还在发育中。6个月后,就可以只用清洁剂和清水清洗奶嘴。不要用你的嘴来“清洁”奶嘴,那只会将细菌传播给你的宝贝。
  · Don't sugar coat it. Don't put sweet substances on the pacifier.   不要在奶嘴上涂甜味剂。
  · Keep itsafe. Replace pacifiers often, use the appropriate size for your baby'sage, and watch for loose parts or signs of deterioration. Also use caution with pacifier clips. Never use a string or strap long enough to get caught aroundyour baby's neck.   安全地使用。经常更换奶嘴,使用适合宝宝年龄的尺寸,并注意零件松动或恶化的迹象。小心使用奶嘴夹。绝不可使用长度足够绕住脖子的绳子或带子来栓奶嘴。
  The bottom line   To reduce the risk of SIDS, the American Academyof Pediatrics recommends offering a pacifier at naptime or bedtime until age 1.However, the risks of pacifier use begin to outweigh the benefits as your babygets older. While most kids stop using pacifiers on their own between ages 2and 4, others need help breaking the habit.   为了降低婴儿猝死的风险,美国儿科学会建议在小睡或睡眠时间给宝宝使用奶嘴,直到1岁。然而,随着宝宝年龄增大,使用安抚奶嘴的风险将超过使用的益处。绝大部分儿童会在2~4岁停止使用安抚奶嘴,有一部分儿童需要帮助他们戒断这个习惯。
  Depending on your child's age, consider these techniquesto wean your child from the pacifier:   根据孩子的不同年龄,可以使用下面这些技巧帮助他戒断安抚奶嘴。
  · Younger infants. Swaddling, rocking, singing,playing soft music and infant massage can be effective alternatives to pacifieruse.   较小的婴儿:襁褓、摇摆、哼歌、舒缓的音乐和婴儿抚触可以有效替代安抚奶嘴的使用。
  ·Older infants and toddlers. Activities, toys or other objects of affection, such as a blanket with satinedging, might help distract your child from his or her desire for thepacifier.   较大的婴儿和学步儿童:有趣的活动、玩具或其他安抚物,如一条毯子,可以分散你的孩子对奶嘴的欲望。
  · Toddlers and older children. Considerholding a special ceremony to bury or otherwise discard the pacifier —or allowyour child to trade in his or her pacifier for a special book or toy. Yourchild's dentist might also be able to help your child stop using the pacifierby explaining the potential impact of prolonged pacifier use on his or herteeth.   学步儿童和更大的孩子:为孩子举办一个特殊的仪式来埋掉或丢弃奶嘴,或者用一本特殊的书或玩具来与奶嘴进行“交易”。可以请孩子的口腔医生向他解释安抚奶嘴对他的牙齿的潜在影响,从而帮助孩子停止使用奶嘴。
  If you need additional help weaning your child fromthe pacifier, consult your child's doctor or dentist.   如果你需要更多的帮助让孩子戒掉安抚奶嘴,请咨询你的儿科医生或牙医。
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